Published by: Pakistan Petroleum Limited

through Ushba Publishing International

194-S. Block II, PECHS.,

Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan.

ISBN 978-969-9154-01-0




First Edition: 2008



Message by:   Syed Munsif Raza. Managing Director PPL.


Preface By: Bashir Sheikh, Vice Chancellor Sindh Agriculture University Tandojam


Foreword by: Dr ZafarAltaf, Former Secretary, Ministry of Food and Agriculture, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad.



Total Pages: 250




Pakistan Petroleum Limited is proud to be associated in the publishing of the book Post Harvest Technology of Mangoes, based on the agricultural research work carried out by the renowned agriculturist and research scholar, Mr. Muhammad Hussain Panhwar and his wife, Mrs. Farzana Panhwar.


The book is a useful contribution in the field of agricultural research, and offers excellent knowledge about the post-harvest technology for increasing the quality mango yield in the country. I am confident that our agriculturists actively involved in the cultivation of mangoes would immensely benefit from this book, and bring to the market high quality mangoes. It is the second major fruit crop of Pakistan and is generally regarded as the ‘King of All Fruits’. If adopted by growers, the technology presented in this book can significantly enhance mango export from Pakistan.


The printing process of this book started in the life of Mr. Panhwar, who unfortunately expired in April 2007, however, his research work would remain alive. The book is a tribute to the late Mr. Panhwar, who will always be remembered for his services in the agricultural sector of Pakistan.


Syed Munsif Raza

Managing Director


Agriculture is the mainstay of Pakistan’s economy. In addition to field crops, diverse types of fruits and vegetables are grown under the sub-tropical to temperate climates prevalent in the country. It presents enormous potential for increased production and its marketing in local and foreign markets. A considerable proportion of the country’s food harvest, however is lost to spoilage and infestation before it reaches the consumer. It is alarming to note that due to perishable nature of these high value fruits and vegetables and lack of proper infrastructure and management practices in pre and post production period, the quantum of loss has been estimated to be 40%. Primary factors responsible for post harvest losses include: poor orchard management practices, poor pre-harvest measures, imbalanced use of nutrients, pest and disease infestation, and the use of various possessing low shelf life. Other constraints include non application of pre-harvest recommended treatments, harvesting at improper stage, low-tech harvesting procedures, non removal of field heat, improper sorting and grading, inadequate storage practices and transportation, etc.

Mango is the second major fruit crop of Pakistan—which rightly deserves the focus as ingrained in this book. It is grown on an area of over 93,000 hectares with a total production of 1,888,000 tonnes. The total export of mango fruit during the year 2005- 06 was 262,000 tonnes (which is roughly 14% of the total produce) with a total export earning amounting to 5,394 million rupees. There is still enormous unexploited potential which requires enabling environment to further boost export trade of mangoes. Thus, special attention is to be given to post-harvest techniques including improved processing, packaging and transportation system, maintenance of quality control in accordance with the requirements of international trade. 

M.H. Panhwar and Farzana Panhwar have rightly identified such needs and have attempted to enlighten the readers with their knowledge and expertise as detailed in this book on Post Harvest Technology of Mango for export. It will be a useful guide in reducing the post harvest losses, improving quality and increasing the shelf life of the produce for the growers, processors, traders, students, extension specialists, policymakers, research planners, consumers and all other stakeholders. The book focuses on functional processes controlling physical and chemical changes in live plant and plant product after harvest.

I believe this book will serve as a significant milestone in an almost neglected area of mango post-harvest technology and provide a much needed basis for devising policies and plans for boosting export marketing of mangoes and hence foreign exchange earnings of the country. In realization of these concerns, Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam has developed unique facilities of immediately pre-treating the fruits and vegetables after harvest followed by its storage. in walk-in coolers, besides its subsequent use through fruit and vegetable processing facilities. Research on developing post-harvest technologies acceptable to farming communities for reducing post harvest losses is already in progress.

Bashir Sheikh

Vice Chancellor

Sindh Agriculture University Tandojam



This book is by a practitioner and Mr. Panhwar has been at the center stage of agriculture for some time. Agriculture is a passion with him and he reflects this magnificently in this book on Mango exports. Mr. Panhwar has been with this fruit and his exponential experience is reflected in the book.

This is a comprehensive work and reflects the difficulties in the export of this king of fruits. The author touches on practically all aspects required in the export of mangoes. The Trade development corporation and the horticulture board of the government of Pakistan have been at the heart of export of this fruit. They have met with very limited success and it is not surprising for had they reverted to the author they might have faired better and indeed the country and the farmers would have benefited from the experience that the author so correctly states in the book.

This book is a must read for all those who seek to further themselves in the mango export. It describes in detail the various difficulties and their removal. The solutions are stated and this may not have had the benefit of the scientist rigor but it nevertheless has the support of a lifetime of involvement in the horticulture sector. This is the first attempt by a farmer to write such a comprehensive document and one hopes that others would follow suit. It is so important to have the rules rewritten by the actual farmers. I would have personally liked to have seen something on the mangoes from the rest of the country and that could be the only limitation of this book. That said I sincerely believe that the specificities of the mangoes from Sind could easily be implemented in the export of the mangoes from Punjab.

The sector of agriculture is at the cross roads at the moment. The reason that the current resource use is up for grabs and there are strong indications that something drastic would have to be done for the farmers so that they can have a decent living. New innovative resource use has to be brought in. Let me give an example. The current t on production, though not a subject for this book, nevertheless is to be seen in the context of what the competitors are doing. The mango plant is now no taller than ones shoulder. That is not by genetic manipulation but by pruning. So agriculture and horticulture in particular is not only a science but also an art. The implication for world trade is obvious. The mango plant has been somewhat of an enigma for the scientist because of its height With the plant no taller than the shoulder the intensity of plants in an acre has increased form the given of 85 plants per acre to 475 per acre.

The more energetic farmers of Punjab are also now practicing double grafting and this could have a different impact on the crop’s organoleptic position. We know that the rootstock has an impact on the mango’s taste resulting from the scion and the rootstock. There are other innovations that need to be considered. Mango plant and at least one species are true to type from seed and indicating that it is a nuclear plant. That is a rarity in mango plant but the plant in India known as Mahmudia Vikrabadia has this quality. Again grafting has undergone serious changes and the pruning of rootstock is also on the block. In short the horticulture sector in general and the mango sector in particular is in for exciting times.

Coming back to the book the farmer would do well to have this as a reference book and to see to it that the compliance of the requirements is done. That done could lead to a sea change in the farmer’s income and the quality of living that is bound to improve as a result of export.

There has been some argument as to whether WTO is required Or not. The gains from trade are an essential element in the context of gains to the farmers. There are difficulties but the biggest advantage of such a book is that farmers will understand that this is serious business and compliance with rules and regulations can be beneficial to the farmer and it is to his advantage to earn as much as he could.

The book is a first and, is to be recommended to the general public. The author’s wife Farzana Panhwar, the co author has ably helped and it is hoped that she will not stop here but will continue with the efforts. The work has come as a breath of fresh air. I wish the effort all success and I hope there will be many more experiences that the authors will share with the agriculture public.


Dr Zafar Altaf

Former Secretary,

Ministry of Food and Agriculture, Government of Pakistan,