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            The map on opposite page has been drawn by combining two maps of Henry Cousens (1922) and H.T. Lambrick (1964). These were based on topographical surveys and personal observations of the two scholars. That had also used the map of Haig (1884). These maps needed up dating in view of aerial photographs available of this area. The aerial photographs show two major courses of river, these have been superimposed on the Cousens’ map. Following conclusions can be drawn.


  1. Mahfuza of Cousens is much more important site than hitherto thought . It occupies the same area by measurement as Brahmanabad-Mansura of Cousens. Debris at the site cover less than half of actual ruins, which extend to a sufficient distance towards east and south of ruins plotted by Cousens.


  1. Daper Ghangro, named as Patala Cousens, once very important town and perhaps was eroded and flooded by the river Indus. Just up stream of this town, the Indus and probably  Saraswati or Hakara met, Hakra waters must have eroded right bank of the river Indus and thus protected for many centuries Daper Gangro lying on  the left bank of the river. Once water in Sarswati reduced considerably, the river eroded part of the township.


  1. South of Dufani along the old bed of the river, there are ruins of sufficient importance


  1. Cousens’ Mahfuza could not be the Arab Mahfuza township, which existed only for four years. It must be a very important site a predecessor of Brahmanabad- Mansura. The site seems to have eroded and destroyed by the river and the population may have emigrated and built another city on the opposite bank of the River Indus, now called Brahmanabad-Mansura. It may have been site of Brahmanka, which finally became Brahmanabad.


  1. The identification of the sites by various authorities are shown on the map. Those on the left hand side are history oriented scholars except Rennel, who was a cartographer and had no chance to visit Sindh. Those on the right hand side are archaeological oriented scholars, some of whom were responsible for excavations.


  1. The views of the scholars still differ. The major controversial views are those of Dr. N.A. Baloch, who has accepted the findings of Haig. The latter wrote a hundred years back. As Against this view, there is a statement of Department of Archaeology issued in 1978 supporting Henry Cousens’ and Lambrick’s view that Brahmanabad, which after its conquest was re-named as Mansura.




The agents provacator and forger have ever been close friends in history.


    Van Loon


PAGES                                   32  -    33   & MAP

BOOK                                    SINDH QUARTERLY

VOLUME                               XI  1983 NO    3.




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