Printer Friendly Format Printer-Friendly Format

M.H. Panhwar and Farzana Panhwar’s library located at 157-C, Unit 2, Latifabad, Hyderabad (Sindh), Pakistan is probably the largest and single library of its kind on Sindh with 12,000 books, systematically arranged subject-wise and in chronological order of events. The collection is categorized as under:-


1)        Archaeological publications.

Starting with Mehrgarh (7000 BC), Amri (5770 BC), Kot Dijji (3000 BC), Indus Civilization (2350 BC), Jhukar (1650 BC), Jhangar (1350 BC), Vedic Aryans (900 to 519 BC), Achaemenians Greeks, Mauryans, Scythians, Parthians, Kushans (519 BC to 356 AD), Buddhists (350-1250 AD), Habaris, Soomras and Sammas (850-1525 AD), Arghoons, Tarkhans, Mughals, Kalhora and Talpurs (1525-1843 AD) and Classical British architecture (1843-1947 AD). Archaeollogical development under British (1861-1947 AD), Post Independence development in archaeology.

Since there were no brarriers to human movements at any time in history, Sindh had relations with Mesopotamia during Amrian and Kot Dijjian times and afterwards and Mesopotamia had relations with Pharaonic Egypt existed. The library has archaeological material going back 6000 years and covering these three civilization.


2)        Geographical writing on Sindh.

Various texts and articles in journals published since 1801 AD, including secret reports of the British agents describing topograohy routes and resources. The collection includes geographies of India, and geographies of 20 deserts of world, economic, physical political geographies etc.


3)        Historical maps of Sindh.

Maps drawn by different writers from 450 BC to-date, which show Sindh and have been published in books, journals and also Survey of India/Pakistan, all these total to 3,000 Maps. These are different from 1985 maps drawn by the author covering period from geological times to-date.


4)        British reports on Sindh.

Covering economics, irrigation, agriculture-survey and settlements pre-barrage canals, Sukkur, Guddu and Kotri Barrages, law and order, social and economic conditions, customs and manners. These are categorized as:

a)            British reports on Siondh specially on social economic conditions, crime and survey and settlements reports of each of 45 Taluka under irrigation issued once every 10 years.

b)            Reports on law and order, crime local self Government, agriculture, animal husbandry, fisheries, irrigation, roads, building.

c)            British reports on Sukkur, Kotri and Guddu Barrage.


5)        Bibliographies on Sindh.

a)            Source Material on Sindh by M.H. Panhwar 700 pages, 1977.

b)            Bibliography of Sindh and Baluchistan by Bilimoria 60 pages 1930.

c)            A geographical Bibliogrpahy on Sindh by M.B. Pithawala, 1945.

d)            A geological/geographical Bibliography of Sindh (many volumes).

e)            Government of Pakistan’s bibliographies on various subjects and provinces.


6)        Gazetteers of Sindh.

There have been various gazetteers of Siondh published from 1844-1968. These are:

(a)          Thorntons gazetteer, 1844 (covers Southern Punjab and Baluchiatan).

(b)         The Sindh Directory, 1861.

(c)          Traveller guide book of Sindh, the Southern Punjab, Western Rajputana and parts of Baluchistan, 1883.

(d)         Gazetteer of Sindh 1874, revised, 1876.

(e)          Hunter’s Imperial Gazetteer of India 1886 (16 volumes).

(f)           Gazetteer of Bombay Presidency, volume 2, Sindh and Kutch.

(g)          Aitkin’s Gazetteer of Sindh, 1907.

(h)          Imperial Gazetteers of India 1980-9, 26 volumes.

(i)            Imperial Gazetteer of Bombay Presidency volume 2 pertains of Sindh.

(j)           District Gazetteer of Sindh, 7 volumes (1916-19).

(k)         District Gazetteers of Sindh 1968 (1920-27).

(l)            Sorley’s Gazetteer of Sindh, 1968.


7)        Hand book on Sindh.

a)            Sindh Director 1861.

b)            Sindh and adjoining areas 1884.

c)            Sindh 1971.

d)            Sindh 1978.

e)            Sindh 1979.


8)        Pakistan hand books (Sindh included).

1950-1995 (41 volumes).


9)        West Pakistan Annual.

1956 to 1970 (15 volumes).


10)      Journal Mehran Sindhi.

a)            Vol. 1-5 published by the Government of Sindh (1945-51).

b)            Vol. 6-48 Sindhi Adabi Board (1955-97).


11)      Journal Nai Zindagi (Sindhi).

Vol. 1 to 20, (1950-1970).


12)      Journal Ikhbari Taaleem (Sindhi).

Vol. 1 to 28 (1903-1930).


13)      Journal Sindh Quarterly.

Vol. 1 to 25, (1973-1997).


14)      Journal Sindhological Studies.

1979 – 1993.


15)      Pakistan Journal of History.



16)      Pakistan Journal of History and Culture.

All issues up to 1995.


17)      Pakistan Quarterly.

10-12 issues which describe Sindh.


18)      West Pakistan Quarterly.

4 issues.


19)      West Pakistan Year Book.

16 volume from 1955-1970.


20)      Pakistan Archaeology (Annual).

28 volumes 1964-1994.


21)      Archaeological Quarterly.



22)      Census reports of Sindh.

1901, 1911, 1921, 1931, 1951, 1961, 1972 and 1981.


23)      Art of Sindh.

a)      Indian, Persian, Greek, Roman, Moors, Egyptian, Mesopotamian and their similarities and influence on art in Sindh.

b)      Geometrical patterns in Islamic art and its origins.

c)            There also Agriculture Census Reports of 1966, 1976 and 1986.

d)            Library has books on art starting from Mehrgarh to modern time. There is also evidence of foreign influence specially the Greek in Buddhist art which started under Bactrian Greeks 184-80 BC books on Greek art and archaeology, equally apply to Sindh and collection is rich in this respect. Art developed locally is unique.

e)            Besides above art and architecture, the collections has specialized books on art in geometrical patterns on tombs, graves and domestic arts.

24)      Travellers Accounts of Sindh.

a)      Greek and roman accounts.

Some 23 travellers or account writers (Greek and roman) wrote on Sindh between 300 BC to 200 AD. These rare sources have been summarized in one article of M.H. Panhwar and trade and trade articles in another. It would be worth a while to translate the portions form original texts pertaining to Sindh. All original books (English translations) are available in the library.

b)      Arab, Iranian and European accounts.

Arab and Iranians 815-1350 AD, European travelers 1600-1699, British agents 1801-1843 AD. These travels are in form of books, articles and their translation and are available in the library.

c)      European accounts of Sindh.

British factory Records (Oxford 16 volumes) and 4 volumes of “Letter to East-India Company from its own employees” are major sources on Factory Lari Bander though and Thatta scattered information is available from Dutch, Portuguese and French sources too. Recently a Dutch man’s diary has been printed form Karachi, with notes by M.H. Panhwar and Mazhar Yousuf.


25)      Histories of Sindh.

a)      Persian and Arabic Histories of Sindh.

Some 105 histories written in Persian and a few in Arabic cover history of Sindh. The library has all Persian texts, with translation of some. These are listed in source material on Sindh. Summary of many exists in Chronological Dictionary of Sindh.

b)      Persian Histories Exclusively of Sindh.

Chach-Nama, Maasumi, Mazahar Shah Jehani, Tarkhan Namah, Beglar Namah and Tahiri are exclusive histories of Sindh. Recently M.H. Panhwar obtained Waqiati-Tarikh, an unknown history of Sindh (original lost in Bombay but its English translation is rare). Numerous sources give information Kalhora history but the sources are not fully tapped or utilized.

c)      History Ancient Sindh 1000 BC to 1440 AD.

Achamenian, Alexander, Mauryan, Bactrians, Scythians, Parthians, Kushans, Sassanians, Vahlikas, Rais, Brahmans, Arab Governors, habaris, soomra and Samma ruler of Sindh has been reconstructed by M.H. Panhwar in Chronological Dictionary of Sindh and sources used are Roman and Greek writings, archaeology, inseription numisamaties, Indian inscription and records of Rajasthan, Kutch and Gujarat, Arabic and Persian and also Greek, roman, Arab, and Persian travelers accounts, religious and reformist movements. The above book refers to some 750 rare sources. All these books are in library.

d)            Talpur Period Histories.

It remainsal unwritten, though British Residency records of Kutch, Punjab and Bahawalpur have great deal of material. Indian Archives and India Office Library records too have enormous information. History of jagirs in Sindh and Land Elimination in Sindh are good sources on land distribution. Some 31 British Mission and agents visited from 1801-1842 have left adequate records. Four major books on British relations with Sindh by Mariwalla, Kala Therani, Huttenback and Duarte could be used as basic texts on Talpur history. All these are available in the library.


26)      Folklore.

It is simple fiction in poetry and not a sober history, but it does reflect on socio-economic conditions of the era.


27)      British research into socio-economic conditions in Sindh.

A large number of early reports are in Memoirs of Sindh two volume 1855 reprint 1886, but works of Burton, McMurdo, Burnes, James, Dr. Burns, Alexander, Wood, Eastwick Postuns, Pottinger cover a lot of it. More reports came later on due to Administrative necessity. Criminal tribes of Sindh, Rasai Lopo and cher the economic development. The provincial Govenrment had to send an annual administrative report to the Govenror General and Veceroy. This detailed what improvement were brought in various provincial subjects like, agriculture, irrigation, animal husbandry, forests, education, archaeology, taxation new lands brought under cultivation, financial and etc. These voluminous reports were considered as prestige of officers and their efficiency. In this competition, Sindh become the first province to issue postal stamps and have first railway line (The Scinde Railway) from Karachi to Shikarpur. All such reports are available in the library.


28)      Railway and Irrigation.

Rail roads were laid down much faster than irrigation canals. It took the British Engineers long enough to master behavior of the Indus and construction of canals and Barrages. Sukkur Barrage proposed in 1869 was not started until 1922 as designing was no difficulty, but machinery to built it had not yet been developed. Sukkur Barrage completed in 1932 gave the whole world new technologies in earth moving used on long scale which in Rosevelt are lead to building of raods, turn pikes road crossings, bridges dams and irrigation works.

All above British reports are systematically preserved in M.H. Panhwar’s library. The library also has a large number of reports of British issued from Bombay, Calcutta and New Delhi pertaining to Sindh.


29)      Books on fruit crop and engineering.

The library also has 11,000 books on horticulture (fruit crops) 5,000 books on engineering (water, soils, drainage and general agriculture) and 7,000 books on bio-technology, biochemistry, biodiversity, womens affairs and others. The last group is collected exclusived by Mrs. Farzana Panhwar. She also has 1,000 books on computer technologies.

The total number of the books they have is 36,000 all purchased from their own resources. They are willing to cooperate with any party on supply of any material at actual cost.

They have jointly written 18 books on new fruits they have introduced namely peaches, lychee, longan, pomegranate, grapes, grape fruit and guava, which are commercial and pears, persimmon, jojoba, which are under trial.

Farzana has written a major book “Day to Day use of those Chemical which cause Breast Cancer”, and many other (Bio-technology and Pakistan Agriculture).

Their contact numbers are:


Address:           54-D, Block-9, Clifton, Karachi-75600,  (Sindh), Pakistan.

Tel:                   92-21-5830816 and 5830826.

Fax:                  92-21-5830826.

E-mails:            panhwarmh@hotmail.com


URL:                http://www.panhwar.com



Address:           157-C, Unit No.2, Latifabad, Hyderabad (Sindh), Pakistan.

Tel:                   92-221-862570 and 860410.

Fax:                  92-221-860410.


30)      Unpublished books of M.H. Panhwar.

a)      Historical Atlas of Sindh.

M.H. Panhwar collected over 3,000 historical maps of Sindh appearing in various books, historical atlases and also maps of survey of India and Pakistan. It covers period 400 BC to-date. He restudied all these maps and he has drawn 185 historical maps of Sindh for his book “A Historical Atlas Sindh” completed in 1983, but lacking publisher to under-take the task.

(b)     A Social History of Sindh (3 volume, 800 pages).

It is history of Sindh from 1770 BC to 1843 AD and except brief out-line of political events it covers irrigation, agriculture, travelers accounts, trade routes and articles, migration, language and literature, science and technology, during the Beriods of various rulers/dynasties namely: Aryans, Achaemenians, Mauryans, Bacterian Greeks, Parthians, Kushans, Sassanians, Vahlikas, Rai, Brahmans, Habaris, Soomras, Sammas, Arghoons, Tarkhans, Mughal, Kalhoras, Talpurs and British rules.

(c)     Changing Climate and its Impact on History of Sindh by M.H. Panhwar (ready for press).

A 200 pages volume discusses climatic changes since 18,000 BC, and impact that each change brought about rise of cicilisation at Mehrgarh, shift of people to Amri and wet period that lead to rise of Indus Valley, Civilisation, which was destroyed by 1000 years aridity. Dry climate in the Central Asia and Western Mediterranian, brought invasion of Achaemenians, Alexander, Bacterian Greeks, Parthians, Scythians, Kushans and Sassanians. Mild wet period around 400 BC, brought rise of Vahlikas, Rais and Brahmans in Sindh. Aridity that set in around 700 AD, brought 150 years civil war against Arab Governors.

Climatic optimum around 800 AD brought prosperity under Habaris and Soomra. Sammas were less lucky than Soomras but sustained minor aridity. Hyperaridity and cold (Little Ice Age) during Arghoon Tarkhan period brought rebellions, famines and shift to pastoralism ending tinto fall of Mughal rule and rise of Kalhoras. Change in the course of the river Indus in 1758 AD abandoned 50% of irrigated area (1.0 million acres) and lead to Kalhora-Talpur Civil War. Effect of Little ice Age continued during Talpur rule. The British were lucky that from 1850-1947, was warm period, which lead to their glorious rule.

(d)     History of 5000 Years of Irrigation in Sindh.

It is a 200 page document giving the position of the course of river in different periods and consequent canal irrigation. The river courses are based on aerial photographs and other inferences are drawn from historical and archaeological records. From 1000 AD to 1932 Ad canal names come mentioned in different histories are the names of tribes or rulers. 729 canals left by Talurs go back to 800 years rule of locals since 1000 AD. This is further ascertained form courses of the river Indus existing then, ancient canal were periodically merged into new ones when ever river changed, courses. Many hundred canals were merged even into Sukkur barrage and subsequently in Guddu and Kotri. Major changes in river courses, abandoned many canals and most of the time this lead to rebellions and change of ruling dynasties. Climatic optimum (900-1250 AD) increased irrigation and prosperity. Little Ice Age (1550-1850 AD) lowered temperatures by about 9.5ºC (about 1ºF) and low level of water in the canals (1500-1700 AD and again 1760-1850 AD) caused famines, misery diseases, death and rebellion. The British had good luck of worm temperatures (1850-1947 AD) and they completed Sukkur Barrage and left detailed plan for Kotri and Gudu Barrages to be completed in 1960 and 1962. In the meantime water logging and salinity has taken its toll and is being tackled by L.B.O.D and R.B.O.D Projects.

(e)     A Map of Changing Courses of River Indus in the past 7,000 years.

It is on sheet 48”x96” showing courses of the river Indus drawn from some 250 aerial photographs in 1962-1964 and it formed basis for investigation of “Ground Water in Sindh” 1964 revised 1969.

(f)     Ancient Sindh.

It is combination of about 70 articles of M.H. Panhwar covering history of Sindh from 6,500 BC to 1843 AD.

Top of Page