On the uniqueness of Dadu district in Sindh  

                                                        M.H. Panhwar  

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i)                   Geologically Dadu is the oldest district in Sindh except for a few minor peaks of pre-Cambrian rocks in Nagar Parker.

ii)                 Oldest rocks of Sindh the Ranikot series are 62 million to 51 million years old.

iii)              Fossilized trees of Ranikot and coal deposits in those series, show tropical climate 62 million years ago.

iv)               Dadu district has continuity of rock formations called Ranikot, Laki, Tiyon, Khirthar, Nari, Gaj, Manchar, Dado-conglomerates and recent alluvium; respectively being 61-51, 48-40, 40-37, 37-33, 28-28, 18-14, 2 to 7, 0.1 and less than 0.1 million years old.

v)                 Dadu district, along with 40 miles of Larkana district, had the privilege of having glaciers, at the top of hills from Gorakh to Dad between 20,000 and 10,000 years ago, as is shown by U-shaped channels of Khenji, Sita, Mazarani and Gaj nais.

vi)               Dadu district has the highest peak of hill in Sindh at Dublai having a height of 7,122 feet above sea level. This height is comparable to the height of Ziarat and Muree.

vii)            Dadu district has the largest man-made lake in the South Asia.

viii)          Dadu district has 75% thermal springs of the South-Asia. Of the 42 springs in Sindh located by present author, 39 are in Dadu, one in Thatta and two in Karachi districts. Of those in Dadu district 13 are thermal springs, one each in Karachi and Thatta districts is also thermal.

ix)               Dadu is only district in Sindh which can boast of two perennial rivers, the Indus and the Hab and also a perennial stream the Gaj.

x)                  Dadu district is the only district of Sindh having 28 rain fed nais out of 48 within the province.

xi)               Of the rain-fed nais, the Gaj and the Baran discharge over 100,000 cusecs in frequent years.

Cultural activities of the man in Dadu district.

i)                   Dadu is the first district of Sindh, where man started Mesolithic culture i.e., domestication of animals.

ii)                 Dadu is first district of Sindh where man started Neolithic culture or domestication of crops.

iii)              Dadu is the first district in Sindh, where man harnessed the river Indus for raising crops leading to rise of Amri culture 5,500 – 6,000 years ago.

iv)               Dadu has maximum number of archaeological sites of Early Indus Culture in the South Asia, dating back to Amrian and pre-Amrian Times i.e., 5,500 to possibly 8,500 years ago.

v)                 Dadu is the first district in Sindh where copper was used by man for domestic tools, weapons and industrial uses 5,500 years ago.

Biological life in Dadu district.

i)                   There are 42 mammalians in Siondh. Of these there six namely; low land hedge-hog, panther or leopard, Persian wild goat or ibex, urial or shapu or Marco Polo’s Great Pamir Sheep and Cairo spiny mouse exist only in the Dadu district and one more Felis charcoal goat of Dadu district is occasional met in Thar desert.

ii)                 Dadu district has un-intrruptly invited migratory birds from Siberia, Mongolia Ice Age glaciers started melting), during each winter.

iii)              Sindh has 1500 birds belonging to the resident, straggler and migratory classes. Of these Dadu district has the largest number.

iv)               Sindh has about 4,500 floras of which Dadu has 1500 in its Kohistan area.

v)                 Dadu district is the only district in Sindh which has wild almond and walnut trees on its hill tops.

Natural Resources.

i)                   Dadu is the only district in Pakistan having potential for maximum number of minerals.


Fight for national freedom.

On the question of fight for national freedom, the recorded history mentions following major and glaring incidents:

i)                   Sambus, with many thousand followers become martyr at hands of Alexander the Great in 324 BC, but his resistance weakened the conqueror to the extent of loss of his prestige, quick withdrawal, revolt of Moris-I and Moris-II of the Lower Sindh and final poisoning to death of Alexander the Great. (A figure of 80,000 by Plutarch is gross exaggeration).

ii)                 Governor of Sehwan resisted Arabs invasion in 711 AD, and was killed along with thousands his warriors.

iii)              Jam Unar rebelled against Delhi Sultanate in 1333 AD, from this district.

iv)               Sayed Hyder of Sann, opposed Sayed Jampuri’s Pan-Islamist Movement, at the beginning year of 16th century and had his boats destroyed in the river Indus.

v)                 Makhdoom Bilawal and his sons fought to death, opposing Arghoon invasion of Sindh.

vi)               In the 16th and 17th century Dadu district offered maximum resistance Arghoon, Tarkhans and Mughal Governors and brought the total end of Mughal rule in the Central Sindh (Sehwan Sarkar) much before 1680 AD, when Aurangzeb  was at the Zenith of his power.

vii)            Shah Godrios opposed Mughals, who burnt his library of 100,000 books.

viii)          In 1857 AD, revolt against the British, the people of Dadu district joined the rebellion and attempted to close land route.

Earliest religious movements.

i)                   Earliest religious written records of Dadu district come from the life of Alexander who had interrogated 10 philosopher of Dadu district. They probably were Buddhists or Jain priests and out-right ridiculed him by saying “an answer to a foolish question can not be but foolish”.

ii)                 Buddhist reformer Gorakh Nath is said to have visited Gorakh in Dadu district hills.

iii)              Yak Thambi, Laki, Tirath Dhara and Gaibi Pir are earliest centers of water worshipers going beyond the Early Indus Culture or times when, the man as hunter in arid areas had accepted water a Divine Deity.

iv)               Sindh was the last abode of the peaceful Buddhist in the South-Asia defying Hinduism until 13th century.

v)                 During ritualistic religious movement of medieval period of Arghoon, Tarkhan and Mughal governors, Dadu became center of religious reforms under Sufis, shah Godrio being most outstanding.

Earliest trade routes.

i)                   Dadu district has earliest trade routes leading from Karachi, Debal and Thatta via the Kohistan hills to the Indus plains of Central and Northern Sindh and thence to the Punjab and Afghanistan. The route was abandoned after the present railway system was introduced from Kotri to Shikarpur in 1876.


Climate and consequental agricultural potential.

i)                   Just as Jacobabad is the hottest district, Dadu is the coldest district having 400 chill hours (hours below 7ºC in winter) against 350 in Jacobabad and 200 in Hyderabad. Mehar Kakar, Johi, Dadu and Sehwan Talukas are most suitable for raising peaches, plums, apricots, pears, apples pomegranates, loquats, berries, cherries and grapes, in addition of all other subtropical fruits grown in Sindh. Coldest city of Sindh is Mehar. Coldest plains are Kachho of Johi and Kakar and colder than even Mehar.

From: Journal Sindhological Studies, Summer-Winter 1990, pp. 66-69.

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