By: M. Umer Soomro
M. H. Panhwar, the greatest Sindhologist Sindh has hitherto produced, born on Christmas day of 1925 at village Ibrahim Kachi, district Dadu of Sindh. He obtained bachelors degree in mechanical and electrical engineering from NED Engineering College in 1949 and M. Sc agricultural engineering, from University of Wisconsin at Madison (USA) in 1953.
Professionally he specialized in ground water development, earth moving, agricultural machinery, water-logging, salinity control, drainage and agriculture. He worked with governments of Sindh and West Pakistan; as Agriculture Engineer in Sindh for four years and Superintending Engineer for Sindh and Baluchistan for twelve years, up to the end of 1969. From 1970 till death he ran a consulting company specializing in irrigation, water-logging, drainage, agriculture, scientific equipment for education, research and industry and horticulture, working only on government and multi-national projects.
Continuing with his ancestral occupation of farming he established a horticultural farm near Tando Jam (Sindh) in 1964, converted it into a research farm to introduce new fruit crops suiting climate of Sindh in 1985 and developed many new and different fruit cultivars, including 17 of mango, 6 of lychee and many others, among which some extend harvest season of fruit by many months. During the last decade of twentieth century he eliminated pesticides and herbicides from his farm to make it fully organic one. For his researches on farm, he wrote manuals, one on each fruit crop, running into four thousand pages and other ten manuals on post-harvest of fruits and vegetables.
Studies about every aspect of Sindh have been his hobby since school days. As local libraries can not afford to buy every book on Sindh or horticulture or engineering, he used to buy books for his personal collection and reference. Thus, his personal library had some 50,000 non-fictional books almost equally divided on Sindh, horticulture, engineering and environments etc.
Though he traveled widely, but lived at 157-C, Unit No.2, Latifabad, Hyderabad (Sindh), Pakistan, from where he ran his consultancy and research work He also maintained an office at 54-D, Block-9, Clifton, Karachi, Pakistan.
He had four sons, Rafi Hussain (passed away in 2004), Tariq Hussain, Sani Hussain and Muhammad Ali - all settled in USA. His first wife died and second wife Farzana, a bio-chemist, has authored many books and attended many international conferences.
In June 2003 M. H. Panhwar established a trust to undertake social work in Sindh. He transferred his home, office, agriculture land comprising farm/orchard, library and other property in the name of the Trust.
Having lived an eighty-one plus years’ purposeful, joyful and colourful life, as he himself used to assert, he passed away on 21st April, 2007 AD.
The trust is now managed by his wife and sons who have plans to open an agriculture research center at his farm near Tando Jam and collaborate with the administration of University of Sindh in establishing M. H. Panhwar Chair, where his complete library will be transferred to facilitate the researchers.
The contribution of M. H. Panhwar, as a historian of Sindh, lies in the fact that he is the beginner of scientific history writing of Sindh and the only one who tried to uncover the faces behind the social organization of Sindh. As in ‘An Illustrated Historical Atlas of Soomra Kingdom of Sindh’ he writes: “My definition of history is that it is the history of production, control over means of production and production to its final distribution. The history is more history of people than politics”. From this very stand it is clear that M. H. Panhwar attempted to interpret the history of Sindh from the peoples’ point of view. Because for him; people are the makers of history. M. H. Panhwar offered a lot to the intellectuals of the Sindh to de-mythologize the stories, which need to be retold in a scientific manner.
Mian Mumtaz Sumra of Multan, himself a scholar, told me in a personal communiqué that Mr. Panhwar is a scholar of the level of Haig, Raverty and Lambrick, who will not mince words or be influenced by others, except new research, based on which he will revise his previous opinions, as he is neither dogmatic nor affected by tribalism, nationality or religious bias and could be highly trust-worthy.
The unique quality of Mr. Panhwar’s work is his treatment of the subject on scientific lines. He does never speculate or rely on hypothesis. His word is the word of science; authentic, accurate, particular and permanent. He had vision to analyze things to their correct historical perspective and in this context he took support of archaeology, which is the support of scientific truth. Writing history with data acquired through carbon testing is new phenomenon in Sindh, which Mr. Panhwar made.
M. H. Panhwar is one of the pioneers in giving a new meaning to history by including geography, archaeology, culture of the people including the ruling elites and the common folk, the progressive science, crop technology, forest, wildlife etc – political development is only a part of his emphasis. He rendered a unique service by illustrating the text of his works with large number of maps, pictures and outlines, which leave a testing impression on the reader. This shows his total commitment to the subject matter that makes him a teacher, a historian, an intellectual and an all rounder rolled into one.
Almost all the maps he created himself from his vast first hand knowledge of the region and its history; this kind of resource is not available anywhere else in the literature on Sindh and South Asia.
Talking on different occasions he told that:
“To write the history of Sindh following fields have to be tapped: archaeology, historical documents, travellers’ accounts, historical geography, anthropology, epigraphy, numismatics, coins and currency, geography, geology, climate, ecology, folklore, irrigation, livestock, fisheries, art, cities, towns, settlements, housing, roads, routes, communications, architecture, education, science and technology, local and international trade, export and import, economy, taxation, religion and mysticism, role of the River Indus in the economy and boat traffic, changing courses of the Indus, migrations, languages, literature, official languages, division of labour, empires in India and Central Asia and other international forces, relations with neighbouring states, entertainments, social life, day-to-day living and interior furnishings and decorations, clothing, castes and tribes, family relations, histories of neighbouring states and administration, etc. All these fields are untapped, specially the archaeological sites.”
“There are no historical documents, records, letters or government orders, gifts, licenses, sanads and property records available. They were all destroyed between 1521-1525 AD when every town was forcibly vacated by Arghoons and every village burnt. Again between 1539-1542 AD every crop was burnt to deprive Humayun Badshah, in flight from Delhi to Sindh, of getting food for his two hundred thousand troops.”
“Histories written outside Sindh have very little information on the events.”
“Travellers’ accounts do help, but they are very few and with inadequate information and historical details.”
“Folklore as available to us was written in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries and many times stories were similar to those from neighbouring countries. It underwent periodic changes, additions and improvements and present folklore cannot be more than three hundred years old, as its language shows.”
“Historical geography is helpful specially in Sindh, where the River Indus changes courses frequently and prosperity of arid areas in which annual rainfall is just 5-10% of evaporation and moisture deficit of 90-95% comes from irrigation by the Indus water through canals. The canals take off from the river and once river changes its course, the whole irrigation system gets destroyed and it takes 20-50 years for restoration of cultivation on new canals.”
“Aerial photography taken from the height of twenty thousand feet show ruined sites. It can also help in locating sites presently under crops, graveyards, small villages and huts and complete building plans can be observed. Photo-grammetry and false colour infrared photography, not used by Pakistan archaeologists themselves, can be employed if private parties are allowed to explore the sites.”
“So many Nars (Persian wheels) were used in Sindh on canals to lift water that Arabs called them ‘Sindhi wheels’. The word Persian wheel was coined by the Europeans, who first saw them in Persia (Iran) and we know that in that country and the central Asia lift or surface irrigation was very limited. Persian wheels and Bokas were leading mechanical devices in Sindh for long period and no country in the world could match Sindh. Crops, fruits and vegetables grown in Sindh included poppy, which was used to manufacture marijuana, as highly decorated Sulfis (smoking pipes) with carbon deposits could only be used for that purpose, because tobacco was brought to the old world by Spanish and Portuguese from America in the sixteenth century, after its discovery in 1492 AD.”
Due to scarcity of reliable historical works, reconstructing the history of Sindh had become a problem to conventional historians. M. H. Panhwar being an engineer used different scientific methods to build the history. Firstly, he investigated and listed the settlements now in ruins and surface collection of all kinds of articles from there, now available in five museums of Sindh at Karachi, Jamshoro, Hyderabad, Banbhore and Badin. Next, he examined material found from cities destroyed during the different periods. All these collections, mostly of terracotta, gave him some plain and decorative geometrical patterns stamped or die cast on them. In addition to these, limited ornaments of metallic and stone or both materials are also available. In general these objects throw some light on day-to-day life and were awaiting investigation. He traced their designs back to those on Buddhist stupas of Sindh and further beyond to Mohenjo Daro, compared them with designs of ornaments of neighbouring Indian states and found similarities among them. This gave him clues to arts, crafts and some fashions of different periods.
M. H. Panhwar used aerial photographs to build river courses and major changes in them, which led to flourishing and decaying of important religious and commercial centres and shifting of capitals - the important finding that removed all past guesswork.
He also used the courses of the River Indus to reflect on irrigation system.
He used unique study of climates of the past and found “Climatic Optimum” periods world over with more rainfall, more snow melt, more water in the Indus, more canals running for longer period, more cultivated land, more production and therefore more economic activity and well-being of the people.
To build up political history he uses Sindh’s contacts with neighbouring forces and concludes that Sindh could maintain independence so long as those forces were too weak to capture it and as soon as any of them became strong it subjugated Sindh.
An interesting part of his work pertains to social life in Sindh like marriage and love lives, position of women, the first women ruler of Sindh, polygamy, seclusion of women or Purdah, Sati, women’s property rights, dresses and fashions, ornaments, food and drink, children’s toys, entertainments, house-hold furniture, sports and amusements, etc. These are built either from historical records or traditions.
As an archaeologist he used to state and lament that:
“Archaeology gives clue to existence of Islam, Hinduism and Buddhism in Sindh side by side until the end of thirteenth century and at Sudheranjo Daro up to 1351 AD or afterwards. By examining these three religions one can find that even snake worship was in vogue in Sindh till fourteenth century. The book of Devala (Dewana of Muslims?) composed as guide-line to face the onslaught of Islam by Hindus, created tolerance and respect between the two communities for the next one thousand years and it is not surprising that both Hindus and Muslims developed reverence for common shrines.”
“Archaeology is extremely useful source as archaeologists dig people rather than materials, but only few sites have so far been explored. Pakistan government’s archaeologists who have virtual monopoly in the field are not interested in anything of local dynasties of Sindh, though Muslim by religion.”
“A great number of major archaeological settlements not only lay unexplored, but are allowed to be leveled up for agriculture, road construction, graveyards and new settlements and the process continues. Rescue archaeologists could have retrieved as much information as possible before they were destroyed. This was never done. Robber trenching is also common in old sites in Sindh for building materials, road ballast and housing. Robbing of large bricks 20 x 18 inches (51x46 cms) size from Dhamraho Daro has been taking place for half a century, stone blocks of 18 x 24 x 12 inches (46 x 61 x 31 cms) have been robbed from Shah Kapoor palace to build a mosque in a nearby village, 24 x 48 x 18 inches (61 x 122 x 46 cms) stone blocks are reported to have been taken away from Khirun Kot and so is the case with Junani in northern Sindh and a large number of sites in lower Sindh. Eighteen acres land of Khirun Kot has been leased out to a poor agriculturist, who is waiting for a fortune to get about some hundred thousand rupees required for razing this giant fort. Numerous dilapidated Maris (bungalows) of Shah Kapoor have been leveled up for agriculture and razed to fill the under construction roads. An important capital of Sindh Tharri has been vandalised and Shah Deewano graveyard has been built on the site.”
“Surface collectors also come across bones, but archaeo-zoology is not developed in Pakistan to handle this. Domestic animals during the era were the same as today. Pig had been eliminated in the Nile, the Euphrates, the Indus and the Ganga valleys at least after fall of Mohenjo Daro, as it competed for food with humans. Since then it was not domesticated, but wild pig was hunted and eaten till recent times. Its ban as human food was adopted from Pharaonic Egypt by Jews around 1500 BC and from them to Islam. Probably by conversion of Sindhis to Sunni Islam at the end of thirteenth or early fourteenth century, wild pig was no longer eaten, except by low caste Hindus; Bhil, Bala, Meghwar, Kolhi and Gurgula of Sindh, all considered untouchables by the former.”
“Human skulls have been found from streets of Banbhore (burnt in 1224 AD), but their cephalic index has not been determined to find if there are racial changes between then, before and now. Excavations may lead us to the amazing conclusions. Bones of humans and animals can easily be dated. Bones contain fats, proteins and collagen. After the death fats and proteins are anaerobically digested rapidly, but collagen takes long time and nitrogen test can easily give the relative date of the death. This too is not being done by archaeologists of Pakistan.”
“Hunted wild animals and their predators may be the same or some others, which have recently, became extinct in Sindh. Hippopotamus existed in the Indus up to sixteenth century but today it is extinct. In the same way Indus dolphin was plentiful in Sindh until construction of barrages on the Indus and its tributaries. We hardly hear of wild ass of Thar and Rann of Kutch now.”
“It is sure that excavations if undertaken will produce fish bones and though fish head quickly disintegrates, bones can be classified. In past the southern Sindh and coastal area produced plenty of fish. Large number of natural lakes formed by abandoned courses of the River Indus below delta head, heavy rainfall of five inches in one day and twice in every ten years and annual floods of Indus, made southern Sindh a land of thousands of islands and converted it into a fish and fowl paradise. There was plenty of fresh water fish species and migratory fowl from Siberia, northern China and north-central Asia. The coastal areas having diluted water in eighty kilometre width deep into the sea was another heaven for brackish water fisheries available to population. The foreign archaeologists working in Pakistan are using floatation process for recovery of organic plant matter and bones. Bones can also be given fluorine test to find their age.”
“Pakistan government’s archaeologists have been looking for Islamic sites and by Islamic period they mean only Arabs, Delhi Sultans and Mughals monuments. To them more than 500-year rule of local Muslim Soomra-Samma dynasties is second rate Islamic era and therefore not even worth mentioning. They will not admit looting and burning of Sindh’s cities by the Muslim conquerors, though evidence of large-scale massacre and burning of cities had been established by the foreign archaeologists. They will not accept that Damascus-Baghdad ruled from there only for about one-and-quarter century and local and naturalized Arab Sindhis ruled it for nearly one-hundred-and-sixty years before Soomras. Had they said it honestly during the role of dictator like Zia-ul-Haq, they could have been easily sacked. They allow foreign archaeological missions to excavate the mature Indus, early Indus and pre-Indus cities, but not Buddhist period sites in Sindh, which survived from about 100-1300 AD and finally came to an end by abandoning them, as all Buddhists of Sindh were converted either to Islam or Hinduism and some of the settlements came to an end due to changing courses of the River Indus.”
Subject wise list of M. H. Panhwar’s works on various aspects of Sindh is given hereunder:
Source Material on Sindh, 1977, 583 pages.
Chronological Dictionary of Sindh, 1983, 558 pages.
Heroic Struggle of Sindh against Feudalism - 1500-1843 AD, J. Sindhological Studies, Summer 1979, Sindhi translation by Dr. Ghullam Muhammad Lakho, J. Mehran, J. Sindh Quarterly 1977, and J. News and Opinions, 2004.
Influence of Ancient Sciences including those of Sindh on Al-Razi, J. Sindhological Studies, Summer 1977.
Sindh-Kutch Relations (with 21 historical maps), J. Sindh Archives, Karachi, 1980, Sindhi translation by Dr. Ghullam Muhammad Lakho, J. Mehran.
Twenty Two Greek and Roman Writers (500 BC - 160 AD) who wrote on Sindh, Sindhi translation, J. Mehran 1981.
Failure of Gate of Sukkur Barrage and Lesson for Future, J. Sindhological Studies, Winter, 1981.
Saman-Ji-Sultanate of Sindh - A Critical Letter by M.H. Panhwar, J. Mehran, 1987.
Inevitability of Conquest of Sindh by the British - 1843, J. Sindhological Studies, Summer 1987 and J. News and Opinions, April-June, 2004.
Definition of Nationality as Applied to Sindh, Letter dated 12.11.1987 to Ghullam Mustafa Shah for J. Sindh Quarterly.
Methodology for Research into the History of Sindh - Part I and II, J. Sindhological Studies, Summer and Winter, 1988.
Revolutionary Invention of Jhali or Pankha in Late 18th and Early 19th Centuries, J. Sindh Quarterly, 1989.
Irrigation in Sindh under Noor Muhammad Kalhora, J. Sindhological Studies, Winter, 1989.
Six Thousand Years’ History of Irrigation of Sindh - 1993, Second Edition 2005, 400 pages.
Sayid Ghullam Mustafa Shah; Some Personal Glimpses (1981-1999), J. Sindh Quarterly, 2000.
Glimpses into 20th Century History of Sindh, (Sindhi), Daily Ibrat, January 26, 2001.
Punjab Mistrust has Long History, Daily Evening Star, February 24, 2001.
Policing in the Past in Sindh - A Case Study of 1714-1850 and 1525-1700 Compared to 854-1011 and 1700-1798 AD, presented at seminar at Karachi, 2002, published J. Grass Roots, 2nd March 2002.
Ghulam Shah Kalhora and his Relations with Kutch, Ghullam Shah Kalhora Seminar, 2002.
Is the Present Drought just Temporary or Long Lasting Disaster - Sindh A Case Study, J. Hayati, September 2004, also daily Dawn, Science Supplement, October 2004.
Kalhora Supporters, Local and Immigrant Tribes of Sindh, (unpublished).
Rare Documents on Kalhora History, (unpublished).
Climate Changes and Their Impact on History Sindh - A case study 20,000 BC – 1980 AD, 250 pages, (unpublished).
A Historical Atlas of Sindh, (unpublished).
Ancient Sindh (collection of 60 articles published in various journals), 800 pages, (unpublished).
A Social History of Sindh (Pre-Islamic Period) 1, 000 BC to 711 AD), (unpublished)
A Social History of Sindh (Islamic Period 711 AD to 1843 AD) (unpublished)
An Illustrated History of Sindh (20,000 BC to 1947) (unpublished)
A map of Changing Courses of the River Indus from Aerial Photographs size 48”x96”, one sheet 1.0x2.5 meters (40x100 inches), (unpublished).
Some Reminiscences and Recollections before age of 10 years, English version unpublished, Sindhi version published June 2008.
Archaeology and Anthropology
Ground Water in Sindh (based on history, geography, geology and changing courses of the Indus), 1964, Enlarged 1969, 356 Pages. (Published as Ground Water in Hyderabad and Khairpur Divisions)
Man in Sindh – Stone Age to Neolithic, J. Sindhological Studies, Summer, 1980.
Sindh and Its Food Resources since Antiquity - Pre-Neolithic Socio-Anthropological Study; Animals, Birds, Fishes and Wild Horticultural Products, J. Sindh Quarterly, 1979 and 1980.
Ranikot - the Largest Fort of the World in Sindh, Its Odd Location and Why? Souvenir Ranikot Seminar, 26th March, 1981, also J. Sindh Quarterly, 1982.
Changing Courses of the Indus; 3,000 BC to Present Times, daily The Star, Thursday March 25, 1982.
Sindh - the Archaeological Museum of The World; Location of Brahmanka, Patala, Demetrias, Minagara, Brahmano, Brahmanva, Brahmanabad, Dalu Rai and Mansura, J. Sindh Quarterly, 1983, also J. Archaeology Quarterly, 1994/95.
7,000 Years of Women’s Slavery, J. Sindhological Studies, Part I, 1984.
Four Ancient Rivers of Sindh or One Hundred Thousand Years of History of Sanghar District, J. Sindhological Studies, Summer, 1985.
Developments in History and Archaeology of Sindh since Independence, Part-I and II, J. Sindhological Studies, Winter, 1985 and Summer 1986, also J. Mehran.
Hakra or Sarsuti Controversy, J. Sindhological Studies, Winter, 1986, and J. Ancient Sindh, Archaeology Department SAL University, Khairpur, 2004.
Languages of Sindh between Rise of Amri and Fall of Mansura (4,000 BC – 1025 AD), based on archaeological evidence, Cultural Heritage of Sindh, Ed. Abdul Jabar Junejo, Sindhi Adabi Board Jamshoro, 1989.
Oceanographic Archaeology; Its Potential in Pakistan, J. Archaeology Quarterly, 1990.
On Uniqueness of Dadu District Sindh, J. Sindhological Studies, Winter 1990.
Pre-Harappan Chronology of Sindh, Part I and II, J. Sindh Quarterly, 1990 and, 1991, J. Sindhological Studies Summer-Winter 1992.
Save Archaeological Sites in Sindh, Letter to daily Dawn, November 7, 1993.
Seepage of Water from the River Indus and Occurrence of Fresh Ground Water in Sindh, read at conference on Indus, London, July 12-16, 1994. (Published in Proceedings of Conference on the Indus at London, Based on History and Archaeology, Oxford University Press, Karachi).
Henry Cousen and Archaeology of Sindh, (Information on archaeological explorations and excavations in Sindh from 1895/96 to 1937/38 and their explorers as introduction to Sindhi translation of Henry Cousens’, Archaeology of Sindh, Sindhi Adabi Board, 1995.
Origin of Castes and Anthropological Study of Few Sindhi Tribes. J. The Archaeology Quarterly, 1995.
Antiquity of Karachi, paper read at seminar on History of Karachi, 1999.
Influence of Environment on Rise and Fall of Kalhoras, Sindhi translation by Dr. Allah Rakhio Butt, J. Mehran, 1998.
Ancient Geographical Places and Tribes of Sindh in Vedas, Puranas, Mahabharata, Ramayana, Mahapandas, Panini’s Grammar, Greek Writings, Ptolemy’s Map and Arab Geographers, J. Grass Roots, 2002-2003.
Is the Present Drought Long Lasting Disaster or Temporary, daily Dawn Science & Technology World, October 30, 2004.
Seepage of Water from the River Indus and Occurrence of Fresh Ground Water in Sindh, J. Grass Roots, 2002-2003, also J. Hayati, October 2004.
Long Drought Cause of Fall of Mohenjo Daro and Indus Civilization, Khabrain Magazine, October 31, 2004.
In the Memory of Books by Thinkers Library Series issued from London, J. News and Opinions.2004. (Large number of their books is on anthropology)
History of Khudabad City of Sindh, read at seminar at Khudabad, December 2004.
Developments in Archaeology since Mujamdar’s Explorations in Sindh, Introduction review of Dr. Ghullam Muhammad Lakho’s History of Kalhoras.
Opening up of new Knowledge on Sindh’s Past, Consequent to Mujamdar’s “Exploration in Sindh”, (unpublished).
Six Thousand Years’ History of Irrigation of Sindh - 1993, Second Edition 2005, 400 Pages.
Geography and Maps
17 Maps of Ground Water in Various Areas of Sindh in book titled Ground Water in Sindh, 1964.
Map of Sindh from 250 Aerial Photographs on Size 4x8 feet, scale 1:250,000 (Unpublished). Gives courses of the River Indus during Past 5,000 Years.
Maps of Sindh (Description of 500 historical, economic, hydrological, archaeological, physical, geological, ground water and administrative maps in his possession drawn by different authors and listed in his book Source Material on Sindh), J. Sindh Quarterly, 1976.
One map in Historical Geography of 17th Century Sindh, an introduction to Mazhar Shah Jehani (Sindhi translation), Sindhi Adabi Board, 1977.
21 historical maps in Sindh-Kutch Relations, J. Sindh Archives, Karachi, 1979.
The Art of Map Making and Some Rare Maps of Indian Sub-Continent (which include Sindh) and Sindh; 140 to 1808 AD, J. Sindh Quarterly, 1980.
473 maps of Sindh in Royal Geographical Society, British Museum, India Office Library and National Achieves of India, J. Grass Roots, Spring, 1980.
Map of Sindh (1855) scale 1 inch = 8 miles, published by the Government of Bombay, (names re-written and modern equivalents mentioned).
12 historical maps in souvenir on Ranikot Fort, March 26, 1981.
Changing Courses of the Indus near Sukkur; 3,000 BC to Present Times, daily Evening Star, March 25, 1982, one map.
5 historical maps of Sindh in “Greek and Roman Writers Who Wrote on Sindh”, J. Mehran, 1982.
45 historical maps of Sindh in Chronological Dictionary of Sindh.
Fixing Boundaries of Sindh by the British 1843-1947, 7 maps, J. Sindhological Studies, Summer, 1989.
An Illustrated Historical Atlas of Soomra Kingdom of Sindh, 1011-1351 AD, 248 pages, 2003, 70 maps.
A list of 3,000 maps showing Sindh, from various books, atlases and travellers’ sketches, (unpublished).
Muslim Aurat (Sindhi), 1945.
Causes of Decline of Persian in Pakistan, Pak-Iranian Cultural Center, December, 1975.
Evolution of Arabic System of Medicine from Greek, Indian, Mesopotamian, Egyptian and Chinese up to 9th Century AD, J. Institute of Sindhology, Summer 1977.
Institute of Sindhology Jamshoro (Sindh); Suggestions for its future programs, J. Sindh Quarterly, 1988.
A New Revolution on Women’s Rights in Sindh, Initiated by Pir Pagaro Saheb for his followers, (unpublished).
In Search of a Summer Hill Resort in Sindh, daily The Star, Thursday, October 14, 1982.
Failure of a Gate of Sukkur Barrage of Sindh and a Lesson for Future, J. Sindhological Studies, 1982.
Development of Summer Hills Resorts and Tourism Centres in the Western Hills of Sindh, J. Mining Engineer Pakistan, October 1985.
Climatic Changes in Sindh; 67 million years ago to 1850 AD, J. Sindh Quarterly, 1993 and J. The Archaeology Quarterly, 1992.
A New Look at Agro-Climatic Zones in Sindh, daily Dawn, Economic and Business Review, Agriculture & Technology, May 29 – June 4, 1993.
Agro-Climate of Coastal Zone of Sindh and Potential for Development, J. Wildlife and Environment, April-June, 1995.
Rain Havoc in Dadu-Larkana Districts of Sindh, daily Barsat, August 14, 1995 and daily Dawn, Economic and Business Review, August 5-11, 1995.
Could Rain Disaster in Dadu and Larkana Districts of Sindh be Averted, J. Wildlife and Environment, July-September, 1995.
The Environments that lead to the Rise and Fall of Kalhoras in Sindh, J. Grass Roots, 2002, Sindhi translation, J. Mehran by Dr. Allah Rakhio Butt, 1998.
Agro-Climate of Sindh, J. Sindh Society for Horticultural Science.
Impracticability of Melting of Glaciers for Water for Irrigation, daily Dawn, May 29, 2003. (The author states that cost of water per acre will be over Rs.12, 000).
Seeding Clouds for Rain - Uncertain Results, daily Dawn, July 11, 2000.
Is the Present Drought Just Temporary or Long Lasting Disaster - Sindh A Case Study, J. Hayati, September 2004, daily Dawn, Science Supplement, October 30, 2004.
Fall of Mohenjo Daro and Indus Culture caused by Drought, daily Khabrain (Urdu) 2004.
Desertification and Drought Menaces in Past 14,000 Years, daily Dawn, Science and Technology Supplement, September 18, 2004.
Climatic Changes in the Past Twenty Thousand Years and Their Impact on Environment and History - Sindh A Case Study, (unpublished).
Abdullah Haroon of Sindh and his Times; 1911-1942 AD, J. Sindh Quarterly, 1983.
Pir Hisammuddin Rashdi, A Dedicated Historian of Sindh, J. The Archaeology Quarterly, 1991.
My Reminiscences of G.M. Sayed of Sindh, Part-I; 1963-70, J. Sindh Quarterly, 1996, Part-II, G.M. Sayed Academy, 2004.
Environments that led Shah Latif’s Poetic Excellence in Sindh.
Geology and Geography
About Paleontology of Sindh, 1870-1884, J. Sindh Quarterly, 1980.
Ground water books listed under Ground Water.
International Trade of Sindh, through its Port Barbarican (Banbhore); 200 BC – 200 AD, Sindhological Studies, Winter, 1980.
The Dutch East India Company (Voc) and Diewel-Sindh, Pakistan, by William Floor, introduction by M.H. Panhwar, 30 Pages, 1993.
5,000 Years of Trade through Barbarican and the Indus, J. PIMA, 1994.
Sketches, drawings, paintings and portraits on Sindh, by British Officials in the mid nineteenth century (about 300 drawings listed), J. Sindh Quarterly, 1978.
Tragedy of Pakistan’s Agriculture - Cereal Culture versus Horticulture, J. Sindh Quarterly, 1988.
Economic Plight of Sindh under Pakistan, J. Sindh Quarterly, 1990.
Strangulation of Agriculture; Increasing Rural Poverty in Sindh and the Lower Punjab, J. Sindh Quarterly, 1991.
Low Agriculture Prices Result in low Yields, daily Dawn, Economic and Business Review, 1996.
Alleviation of Poverty through Agriculture Development, daily Dawn, Economic and Business Review, February 3-9, 2001
Causes of Rural Poverty in Sindh; Rural Poverty, Agriculture Inputs and Price Policies in Sindh, J. New and Opinions, January-March, 2004.
Some Suggestions for Ending Economic Depression in Sindh (Sindhi), daily Ibrat, September 7, 2004.
Source Material on Sindh, Institute of Sindhology, 1977.
Bibliography of Sources on Mir Ghullam Ali Talpur (73 titles excluding new papers).
Proposal for Establishment of Field Drainage Experimental Farm in Khairpur District (Sindh), J. Young Engineer, 1959-60.
Ground Water in Dadu District of Sindh, 1962.
Ground Water in Hyderabad District of Sindh, 1962.
Ground and Surface Water in Arid Zones of Sindh, 1963.
Ground Water in Hyderabad and Khairpur Divisions of Sindh, 1964.
Ground Water in Karachi District of Sindh, 1965.
Ground Water in Lasbella District, 1967.
Ground Water in Quetta Division, 1968.
Ground Water in Kalat Division, 1969.
Ground Water in Hyderabad and Khairpur Divisions of Sindh (Revised), 1969.
Ground Water in Karachi Master Plan Area (4,000 square miles between Karachi to Hyderabad), on behalf M/S. Zaheeruddin, Panhwar and Partners, for KDA, 1972.
My Experiences with Ground Water in Sindh, J. Pakistan Agriculture, October, 1984.
Ground Water in the Thar Desert of Sindh, J. Mining Engineer Pakistan, January-February, 1986.
Some Important Springs of Mahal Kohistan (Sindh), J. Mining Engineer Pakistan, March-April, 1988 and J. Sindh Quarterly.
Facts about Ground Water in Sindh, daily Dawn, August 11, 2000.
Water Requirement of Riverain Area (Ground Water) of Sindh, 2002.
Neglected Riverain Area of Sindh: The Present Situation and Suggestions for its Development, Water Scarcity in Sindh, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, 2004.
A New Exportable Variety of Banana – William Hybrid for Sindh, J. Pakistan Agriculture, June, 1984.
A New Variety of Mango Evolved, J. Pakistan Agriculture, September 1984.
Use of Algae as Proteinious Feed for Human Beings and Animals, J. Pakistan Agriculture, August 1985.
Now Jojoba Oil Plant for Sindh: An Attractive Crop for Cosmetic Industry, J. Pakistan Agriculture, January 1986.
Jojoba Successfully Grown on Six Acres in Sindh, Pakistan, J. Jojoba Happenings USA, July-August, 1987.
Sindh’s Potential for new Fruits, Nuts and Industrial Crops, for Director General Agriculture Extension Hyderabad (Sindh), 1988.
Assessment of present Mango Cultivars of Sindh and Proposal for Extending Mango Season and Increasing Export, Summary In 3rd International Mango Symposium, September 26-October 1, 1989, ISHS, Darwin , Australia.
Growing Bananas in Sindh, J. News Line, June 1991.
Banana Virus in Sindh, daily Dawn, June 18, 1991.
To Grow Pineapple and Oil Palm in Thatta District, J. Sindh Quarterly, 1994.
To Grow Oil Palm in Thatta District (Sindh), Sindh Guardian, January 23, 1992.
The Banana Epidemic in Sindh; Imported Disease or Deliberate Sabotage, J. Sindh Quarterly, April-June 1991.
Is Sindh’s Climate Suitable for Citrus Crops? Daily Dawn, Economic and Business Review, December 7-13, 1991.
Grapes in Sindh: From Minnesota Grape Growers 1992 Annual Report, Sindh Society for Horticultural Science, 1998.
To Grow Pineapple in Thatta District (Sindh), Sindh Guardian, January 23, 1992.
Damage to Fruit Trees by 1992 Rains, daily Dawn, Letters to the editor, September 9, 1992.
Growing Cashew Nut in Sindh: Some Prospects, Business Recorder, February 1, 1992.
Is the Climate of Sindh Suitable for Raising Citrus Fruits? J. Science Technology and Development, January-March 1992.
Grapes in Sindh, J. Minnesota Grape Growers Association, St. Paul (Mn), 1992, Annual Report.
Temperate Zone Fruits in the Sub-Tropical Area of Sindh, Pakistan, in Fourth International Symposium on Growing Temperate Zone Fruits in Tropics and Sub-Tropics, Cairo (Egypt), May 22-26, 1993, in Acta Horticulture.
An Uphill Future for Mango, daily Dawn, Economic & Business Review, May 7-13, 1994.
Bunchy Top Virus of Banana, J. Modern Agriculture, July 1994.
Samphire – An Edible Oil Crop for Sindh, daily Dawn, Economic & Business Review, May 27 – June 2, 1995, jointly with Farzana Panhwar.
Intellectual Property Right and Mango Production, daily Dawn, Economic & Business Review, December 9-15, 1995, jointly with Farzana Panhwar.
Neem – An Natural Pesticide, daily Dawn, Economic & Business Review, June 8-14, 1996, jointly with Farzana Panhwar.
Flying Fox - A Highly Lethal Agricultural Pest, daily Dawn, Economic and Business Review, June 29 – July 5, 1996, jointly with Farzana Panhwar.
Samphire (Salicornia Ligrlovii) - A Promising Oil Crop for Sindh, J. Sindh Society for Horticulture Science, 1998-99, jointly with Farzana Panhwar.
Advisory farm note on Mango for Sindh, J. Sindh Society for Horticultural Science, Winter 1998/99.
Research Criteria for Introducing New Fruit and Nut Crops, J. Sindh Society for Horticultural Science, 1998-99.
Top Horticulturist of Pakistan and Our Ignorance, J. Sindh Society for Horticultural Science, 1998-99.
New Mango Called Sindhu, Developed in Maharashtra, India, J. Sindh Society for Horticultural Science, 1998.
Mango Cultivation Practices and Belief; Truth or Myth, J. Sindh Society for Horticultural Science, 1998-99.
Simaruba Glauca (Edible Oil Nut) Fruits in Sindh, J. Sindh Society for Horticulture Science, 1998-99.
Disappearance of the Citrus Industry in Sindh between 1955 to 1960 and Its Rehabilitation, J. Sindh Society for Horticultural Science, 1998-99.
Neem – A Natural Pesticide, J. Sindh Society for Horticultural Science, 1999.
The Great Banana Tragedy in Sindh, J. Sindh Society for Horticultural Science, 1999.
To Grow Oil Palm in Thatta District, J. Sindh Society for Horticultural Science, 1999.
Agricultural Libraries of Pakistan, J. Sindh Society for Horticultural Science, 1999.
Poverty Reduction in Pakistan; Mexico an Example for Planning, daily Dawn, 1999.
Mango Farm Note, No.1, J. Sindh Society for Horticultural Science, 1998/99.
Mango Farm Note No. 2, J. Sindh Society for Horticultural Science, 1999.
Alleviation of Poverty in Pakistan through Horticulture - Some Practical Suggestions, daily Dawn, Business and Economic Review, 2002.
Mango Growers Predicament, daily Dawn, May 18, 2003.
Concerning Survival of Mango Industry, daily Dawn, Economic and Business Review, June 23-29, 2003.
Date Industry in Doldrums in Sindh, daily Dawn, Economic and Business Review, September 23-29, 2003.
Mango and Citrus for Home Gardens, J. Pakistan Horticulture Society, Annual Number, Karachi, 2004.
Strategy in Horticulture, daily Dawn, Economic & Business Review, February 28 - March 6, 2005.
Threshers - British and American, 1953 and 1958.
Harvesting and Storing of Rice in Sindh, 1953 and 1958.
Cotton Growing Machines (MS Thesis for University of Wisconsin), 1953, Revised 1970, Revised 2003.
Mechanization of Sugarcane in Sindh, 1969.
Mechanization of Cotton Crop in Sindh, 1969.
Reports on Development of Sugarcane for Sugar Mill at Piarogoth, (Sindh) 1975-76.
Wheat Turns Poison, J. Pakistan Agriculture, November 1984.
Development of Agriculture Engineering in Pakistan - Sindh A Case Study, J. Pakistan Agriculture, March 1985.
Soil Conservation in the Thar and Kohistan Areas of Sindh, J. Mining Engineer Pakistan, November 1985.
Soil Conservation of Thar and Kohistan of Sindh, J. Mining Engineer Pakistan, September, 1985.
Wheat in Pakistan: Feeding the Towns at the Expense of the Farmers, J. Landmark (UK), July-August 1995.
Samphire - An Edible Oil Crop for Sindh, J. PIMA, June, 1996.
Agriculture Guru Reveals - Priceless Tips, by Nisar Ahmed, daily Evening Star, December 22, 2004.
Banana Epidemic in Sindh; Imported Disease or Deliberate Sabotage, J. Sindh Quarterly, 1991.
Farming Needs New Technology, daily Dawn, Economic and Business Review, January 17-23, 2005.
Reports for Animal Husbandry Farm at Jhimpir Sindh, 1975-76, for Government of Sindh.
Agro-Live Stock Project Jhimpir Sindh, J. Pakistan Agriculture, October, 1983.
Rabbit Farming in Sindh, J. Pakistan Agriculture, October, 1983.
Scope for Prawn Farming in Sindh, J. Pakistan Agriculture, September, 1983.
Engineering, Scientific and Economic Considerations for an Aquaculture Enterprise in Sindh, J. Pakistan Agriculture, October, 1984.
Prawn Farming in Sindh, two volumes, unpublished.
Failure of a Gate of Sukkur Barrage of Sindh, a Lesson for the Future, Sindhological Studies, Summer 1983.
Irrigation in Sindh under Noor Muhammad Kalhora, J. Sindhological Studies, Winter, 1989.
Six Thousand Years’ History of Irrigation of Sindh - 1993, Second Edition 2005, 400 Pages.
Influence of Environment on Rise and Fall of Kalhoras, translated in Sindhi by Dr. Allah Rakhio Butt, J. Mehran, 1998.
Seepage of Water from the River Indus and Occurrence of Fresh Ground Water in Sindh, J. Grass Roots, 2002-2003 and J. Hayati, October 2004.
Reports for WAPDA, 1974-81 Concerning:
Left Bank Outfall Drain Project of Sindh, Phase-I, Project Preparation 92 Volumes (1974-1979).
Kandhkot-Thul-Shahdad Kot Surface Drainage Project of Sindh, Project Planning 3 Volumes (1975-1980).
Experiments on twenty-one feet Southern Cross Wind Mill at Tando Jam, Sindh, 1965-69, published 1970.
First Biogas Plant of Pakistan at Tando Jam, Sindh, 1959, J. Science, Technology and Development, 1984.
Small Tractors and Are They Worth While? J. Pakistan Agriculture, March, 1984.
Scope for Use of Wind Power in Sindh, 1984.
Agro-Industry and Power Orientation, J. Pakistan Agriculture, August, 1984.
Proposal for Installation of 250 Wind Mills in Kohistan and Thar Desert of Sindh as Range Management Program, J. Mining Engineer Pakistan, November 1985.
Scope for Better Utilization of Poultry Droppings, by Converting It into Cattle Feed and Methane, J. Science, Technology and Development, January-February, 1986 and J. Pakistan Agriculture, February 1985.
Electromagnetic or Electronic Treatment of Kohistan Water for Use in the Boilers, J. Mining Engineer Pakistan, March, 1986.
Wind Power Development for Sindh Pakistan; Wind Velocities Too Low for Economic Power Development, daily Dawn, Economic and Business Review, December 2-8, 2002.
Biogas Plants for Developing Countries, unpublished.
Medal from Sindh University for securing first number in first class in BE (Mech. and Elec.), 1949.
Awarded Sitara– e–Imtiaz by the President of Pakistan in 1992 for outstanding work in Engineering and Agriculture.
Nominated in “Who is Who in the World” in 1987/88.
Life Time Achievement Award for serving Motherland in History and Archaeology, 1999 by Sindh Tarqi Pasand Party.
Life Time Achievement Award for Service in Science of Engineering and Agriculture, August 2002 by Revivers.
Life Time Achievement Award for Service in Sciences, Agriculture and Engineering by ‘In the Name of Allah’, 2003.
Life Time Achievement Award in Science, Sindh Graduates Association, August 2004.
Life Time Achievement Award in Agriculture Science by Sindh Agriculture University, November 2004.
Award as Best Horticulturist of Pakistan, by Kissan Times, daily Khabrain (Urdu) & Chawla Group of Companies, June 2004.
Professor Agricultural Engineering at King George-V Agricultural College, Sakrand and Tando Jam, 1954–1957.
Visiting Professor and Equipment Advisor to the Mehran University of Engineering and Technology, 1980–1986.
Engineering Advisor to the University of Sindh, 1982–1986.
While agreeing with Dr. Ghullam Muhammad Lakho that scarcity of historical accounts available about Sindh prompted Sindh’s historians to quote poetic works, folklore and myths in evidence to their historical works, I anticipate a time when they, instead of quoting Shah Latif, will quote M. H. Panhwar for their historical works.
Notes taken in personal meetings
An Illustrated Historical Atlas of Soomra Kingdom of Sindh